ADS-B Apocalypse

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I think most aviation writers are bright-eyed, cheery kind of people just thrilled to spend their days writing breathless paeans to the wonder of flight. On a good day, I can sort of pump myself up to do that before I inevitably spin off into dark obsession about January 1, 2020.

That date, you will surely know, is the ADS-B witching hour, after which you’ll be banished to NextGen no-man’s land if your airplane lacks the little box. As of today, it’s 423 days away. I have a little reminder on my electronic calendar to alert the staff that we can then stop writing about this topic on that day. (It’s a Wednesday.)

Then, as I was researching a report on the latest round of portable ADS-B receivers, it occurred to me that this is a delusional fantasy. In phoning around to various avionics shops, I learned that the long-predicted installation logjam is not quite afoot yet, but it’s in sight. That leads to an obvious question: How many have equipped and how many to go?

The answer proves to be elusive. In June, MITRE estimated that piston-engine singles represent 79 percent of the U.S. aircraft fleet, but only 25 percent of them had installed ADS-B. That’s fairly dismal, but also misleading. AEA’s Ric Perri told me he thinks the number of piston aircraft that can actually justify the expense of ADS-B—and whose owners will—may be as few as 90,000, not the 140,000 on the registry. If that’s so, then as many as two-thirds may have already equipped and surely more than half. Maybe.

But that still leaves 30,000 to 40,000 airplanes to go and a dwindling number of days for them to have the installation done, if indeed they’re going to do it. Shops are telling me that the current backlog is typically between two and three months. Not bad. But what no one counted on or at least fully understood is that customers coming into the shops aren’t just having a quick ADS-B installation. Many are opting for full panel upgrades that take three weeks, not three days.

It’s unclear if that pattern will persist after the first of the year but also no reason to believe that it won’t. That could mean that installation delays could balloon early in 2019 and one shop owner told me he thinks that’s exactly what’s going to happen. “I have no doubt there will be a lot of people grounded,” Chuck Gallagher, of Cincinnati Avionics, told me.  

Then something else occurred to me. I think there will be a substantial community of owners who will sail right past the 2020 deadline without equipping and either not care or just go with the flow to see what happens next. I think the number is likely to be in the many thousands, meaning that hapless palookas like me will be consigned to write about ADS-B … forever. I can already see the story topics: FAA twists pearls over non-equipped airplanes; owners without ADS-B complain of restrictions; owners without ADS-B live a life of carefree and anonymous flying. And so forth.

As a professional requirement, I have to periodically have my eyes de-glazed so I can track all of the ADS-B products. If yours are glazed over, I envy your solitude. But just for the record, by our last count, there are 46 ADS-B products, counting portables and mandate-compliant panel mounts. I’d never say too much competition is a bad thing, but I’m also sympathetic to owners wading through all this stuff to reach a buying decision. Or to skip it entirely. 

If there’s a takeaway here, I guess it’s this: Whether you want ADS-B Out or not, but you fly in airspace where you’re really gonna need it, better make the decision by late spring or early summer of 2019. Such that this is even remotely predicable, my guess is that many shops will be backlogged right up to the deadline by then. (Adding another topic here: Owners howl about avionics shop backlogs.)

We keep hearing from would-be buyers awaiting approval of the uAvionix wingtip and tail light beacon ADS-B Out solutions. As we’ve reported, Garmin has sued uAvionix over patent infringement and it’s unclear how or even if this is impacting approval of the company’s ADS-B Out products. If I were waiting on these products coming to market, I wouldn’t wait too long.

Meanwhile, many thousands of owners have 423 days to contemplate the specter of never equipping or waiting until months after the deadline to do it. I confess to a certain morbid curiosity to see how this is gonna work out, even if it consigns me to write about this topic for the rest of my life, which is evidently going to happen anyway.   

Comments (27)

As an owner, it's hard to justify spending $2-6K on something we DON't NEED to fly.
It's no benefit since we already have an IFR system that functions without it and a VFR system with the lowest accident rate in history.

This is a made up, government mandate where some office bureaucrat made an arbitrary decision. Those of us who have to deal daily with reality of flight and the practicality in ownership are being forced to do so only because "they say so". Of course when things are of demonstrably dubious advantage and high cost AND mandated, normal people don't like it.

Posted by: Mark Fraser | November 4, 2018 7:49 AM    Report this comment

As someone who equipped last year -- because I needed a transponder -- and also did the installation myself, there's something I'd like for your readers to heavily consider as they ponder what equipment to buy.

Just the other day, the CFI I do my flight reviews with flew his C172 in for an annual directly from the avionics shop after an upgrade. He did exactly what you described ... had a used 430W installed along with a new 'out' box WITHOUT internal GPS. Right away, he's having issues with the used 430W so the transponder doesn't know where it is. He's squawking Mode S with the transponder but NOT squitting ADS-B under that scenario. He's a frugal fellow and instead of buying a box WITH internal GPS installed, he saved $500 (less, if you consider the same box WITH GPS comes with a GPS antenna which he had to buy). So he switched to his backup radio for comm but now doesn't have ADS-B out working without the 430W working properly. This could happen to anyone who chooses to use position info from another onboard radio.

So here's MY two cents worth. If you're going to pop for ADS-B out, DON'T cut corners. Buy a box WITH an internal GPS. That way, you're not dependent upon another radio for position info. IF it goes bad, you're still 'up' to fly in rule airspace as long as the transponder is working and you have a second radio for comm. Folks who fly heavier iron which have two transponders should likely do the same. That way, both boxes have internal position sources totally separate from any other radios in the airplane. The same advice goes for anyone installing a UAT v. transponder.

There's another advantage that I discovered during installation which is NOT advertised in any brochures I saw. With the correct software load, the transponder I bought can share its position information with one of those G5 instruments ... thereby saving having to mount another external antenna on the airplane for a certificated installation.

Finally, I told the CFI that I'd be able to send him his flight info even though he didn't have ADS-B working because Flight Aware uses multilateration (basically, triangulation via timing) to plot his course over the ground even if ADS-B out isn't working. If you're squawking Mode S (only), your tail number is still visible to ATC and Flight Aware uses this info to construct your flight. His eyes glazed over as I tried to explain it all for him. It was too late to make this recommendation to him but not to make this recommendation to anyone here considering what to do.

Posted by: Larry Stencel | November 4, 2018 9:29 AM    Report this comment

On ADS-B and ATC. Ask the guys doing the ATC (tracon) if they know what to do with adsb. Ask If they've been trained or if they have equipment that will solve present or emerging problems. Ask if they are ready for 2020.

Posted by: Rafael Sierra | November 4, 2018 9:33 AM    Report this comment

It sure would be nice to see this list of 46 "ADS-B OUT" solutions. Better then that, what are the eligible GPS options and cost. That's the hold up. The FAA has allowed a few companies to corner the market, monopolize and price fix the approved certified GPS market.

Another topic that should show up in front of congress. The government shouldn't mandate something then only allow a couple companies to fill the demand. The FAA feet should be held to the fire for complicating the certification process. There's over a billion electronic devices with GPS chips in them that work very well and very reliable.

Posted by: Klaus Marx | November 4, 2018 9:40 AM    Report this comment

RAF ... I did just that at Airventure and at a serious regional safety gathering at a military field with tracon that I went to two years ago. I got the same glazed over look AND erroneous information from both ATC types. I still haven't gotten to the bottom of whether or not they get an indication on their screens that you have ADS-B but I'm told that the 'system' fully integrates it all together automatically.

Turns out, it's more or less invisible to them. ADS-B could be likened to making blind radio calls at an uncontrolled airport. You squit out your position for any and all who are equipped to 'see' you directly and for you to activate a safety piece of airspace around you. So it's more an air-to-air thing to keep from clunking into each other. I suppose it'll help with drones, too.

Just two days ago, I was flying with a friend and we noticed an airplane taking evasive action to stay away from us. IF he had ADS-B 'out' in that rural airspace, he'd have activated his hockey puck piece of airspace and ADS-R would have notified him that we were there (we didn't have it). THAT is the beauty of ADS-B ... although I still bemoan the ability to be anonymous anymore.

Posted by: Larry Stencel | November 4, 2018 9:50 AM    Report this comment

I fly in and around the busy Houston class B airspace, so the decision on whether or not to install was pretty simple. Being electronically challenged, I opted to have an avionics shop do the work as part of a panel upgrade, so at least I knew everything talked to the appropriate box when completed. I can't say it made the cost of the ADS-B portion any less painful, but compared to the overall price, it was at least tolerable. We can debate ad nauseam the need for the system, or how the FAA went about it, but personally, I like the position and weather information the system provides. As with ELTs and other mandated equipment, the government rarely makes anyone happy with their method of implementation.

I found your comments on shop availability to be pretty correct. I recently went back to the shop that did my install to discuss adding a new autopilot to my plane. They said their work backlog is about 3 months since most customers are adding ADS-B as part of an overall upgrade that takes weeks instead of days to complete. For those of you still waffling about what to do, you had better at least get your name on the reservation list. Tempus fugit.

Posted by: John McNamee | November 4, 2018 12:29 PM    Report this comment

Another issue (law of unintended consequences) has come up with the pt135 company I fly for with ADS-B. One of our jets had ADS- B installed by the previous owner. It is a Garmin system that has it's own WAAS GPS source. This was a cheaper way to go rather than the additional $60K+ to put WAAS upgrade in the FMS. The problem comes with the FAA edict that your call sign match what the ADS-B is broadcasting. It takes a maintenance action to change from the airplane "N" to our company call sign for this airplane. The fllight crew cannot change it. Company so far has elected not to change it. I'm sure we are not the only operator to run into this situation. So now after just having spent money to get this call sign we may have to return to using aircraft "N" number again.

Posted by: matthew wagner | November 4, 2018 3:54 PM    Report this comment

Paul,
Since you may be writing about this again...lol... Could you please look into and report on the hackable ADS-B receivers that FlightAware has been selling for years (and now on Amazon) to as many desktop computer users as will agree to feed their network? This, combined with this 'mandate' seems like an incredible invasion of privacy for an entire mode of personal transportation. It is also a corporate security risk, a terrorism risk, and a kidnapping risk. If each aircraft is identified, cataloged in the Registration Database, and transmitting waas-accuracy 3d position information.... and every geek can have his own personal receiver at home (for practically nothing), there seems to be no more security in aviation at all.
The alphabet groups seem to be absolutely complacent with this situation, turning a blind eye to this mess. Before now, the FAA was the only entity with your EXACT position and identity. FlightAware, its competition, and those that may have malicious intent, now have absolutely no need for the FAA's info at all. To put this in perspective, consider your spouse driving down the road with her exact position and identity transmitting continuously for any tech-savvy individual to enjoy.

Posted by: Dean Brock | November 4, 2018 8:39 PM    Report this comment

Matthew ... I'm not sure I understand everything there is about a "Company call sign" but IF the box in the airplane is a GTX335 or GTX345, there is a setup procedure to allow for crew change of the call sign from the front panel. It can be locked or it can be changeable. I don't know why the crew couldn't change it unless it's Company policy?

Dean ... someplace, I read where what you can see on Flight Aware is delayed some. That said, if I have a friend that has ADS-B, I can look up his "N" number and know where he flew and is. THAT is exactly the problem I see with ADS-B. IF you equip with a UAT, some boxes allow transmitting an anonymous code but as soon as you request ATC services, you have to turn anonymous off. Of course, the UAT method isn't usable at the Flight Levels so it's only good for lower end airplanes.

Posted by: Larry Stencel | November 4, 2018 9:27 PM    Report this comment

Larry,
It is not. The only thing on the panel is an annunciator light that indicates the ADS-B is functioning or not. Everything else is inaccessible to flight crew. It uses bluetooth to get weather and traffic info on an IPad or other EFB. Another airplane our company operates has a different system and changing call signs is not a problem for flight crew.

Posted by: matthew wagner | November 4, 2018 9:56 PM    Report this comment

"But what no one counted on or at least fully understood is that customers coming into the shops aren't just having a quick ADS-B installation. Many are opting for full panel upgrades that take three weeks, not three days."
Paul, this is exactly what I have been seeing at my shop and it has been repeating itself continuously over the years. No surprise here. Most privately owned smaller GA aircraft have been in dire need of an avionics upgrade over the years and the owners know that. An ADS-B install is just the push needed to follow through on a full panel upgrade. Cry, scream, jump up and down, bemoan all you want, ADS-B ain't goin away. Get with it or get out of the way.

Posted by: Tom Cooke | November 5, 2018 5:12 AM    Report this comment

Klaus, I can't post a link here, but if you go to the AOPA web site and search on ADS-B Selector Tool you can get to individual pages that show the options for UAT, UAT with WAAS and 1090 ES products.

Posted by: Tom Haines | November 5, 2018 10:15 AM    Report this comment

Dean Brock, the "ADS-B receivers" that flightaware and others sell are not "hacked". They are working exactly as designed. They are nothing more than (software defined) radio receivers that are capable of wide range RF spectrum monitoring. No hack required. Further, the current flightaware iteration is notched filtered specifically for ADS-B again, working as designed.

Americans don't give two-pence that their "meta data" is being constantly tracked, recorded and stored. They couldn't care less that your information is broadcast live, real-time as you gallivant around in your G5, eating caviar and throwing puppies out the baggage door.

(OK, they'd be upset over the puppies.)

Posted by: Robert Ore | November 5, 2018 11:54 AM    Report this comment

But Paul, some months ago you said you had written your last article about ADS-B...ever :-)
Hey, at least it is the modern cure for "Aviation Writers' Block".

Posted by: A Richie | November 5, 2018 3:47 PM    Report this comment

What is the bet that by mid next year shops are starting to delay larger jobs because people are clamoring to have legal aircraft on Jan 01?

Posted by: Cosmo Adsett | November 5, 2018 11:13 PM    Report this comment

Cosmo, I'm betting that the situation will go the other way. Why would a shop owner pass up a $40,000 full panel upgrade so he could do a $2,500 ADS-B install? To me, the biggest issue comes down to manpower. Shops are constantly looking for experienced techs that can do quality wiring and installation work. It doesn't matter how many customers are at your door if you don't have the bodies to do the work.

On a related note, Paul B.; Any word on whether the FAA's resurrected rebate program is having any effect?

Posted by: John McNamee | November 6, 2018 10:00 AM    Report this comment

Robert Ore ... I don't understand what you mean by Flight Aware is using "wide range RF spectrum monitoring" or "notch filtered specifically for ADS-B." Neither of those statements make any sense to me? Flight Aware is listening to 1090MHz and 978Mhz and that's it. As to notch filtering for ADS-B ... that's not correct. ADS-B pulses ride in the extended squitter portion of the transmitted transponder signal. Notch filters do not remove some pulses but not others ???

Just the other day, an airplane fresh from an avionics dealer came in for an annual with the complaint that the new G430W wasn't working correctly. I checked Flight Aware and DID see the non-ADSB flight JUST by its Mode S signal. It does that by something called Multilateration ... timing of receipt of the signal via multiple receivers. So ANYONE who is responding to an ATC interrogation via Mode S can be seen by Flight Aware. They do not filter out non ADS-B signals.

Posted by: Larry Stencel | November 6, 2018 10:06 AM    Report this comment

Since I do still fly outside the USA occasionally and did not have a WAAS source, my only option was to spring for a full-featured 1090 MHz Mode S ES box, totaling a cool $6K out of pocket. Even though I am gradually warming to the plus factor of having traffic displayed on my iPad, it's still most definitely a negative cost/benefit ratio.

As I see from the previous comments, most of us are still trying to sort out (grok?) the whole thing, like what is lost or gained with UAT vs. 1090 out and who will see what when in or out of ground station coverage. Still to come will be the day when radar sites start to be decommissioned (the much hyped cost savings) and non-participating aircraft simply disappear completely, taking us back to pre-radar days when the Mark-I eyeball was all we had. A brave new world indeed.

Posted by: John Wilson | November 6, 2018 1:16 PM    Report this comment

Larry.

Software defined radios are small radios that are tunable over a very large range. Typically from below 100 MHz to above 1.5 GHz, this is what Robert was saying about wide range RF spectrum. They typically cost less than $20 delivered.

The Notch filter he is referring to is a filter that blocks signals that are above or below 1090 MHz to make the radio more sensitive to the target signals which are Mode-S transponders.

The radios use a piece of software called Dump1090 to receive and decode Mode-S signals.

Flight aware has three ways of seeing a target and generating a position. The receiver network can directly receive and decode the ADS-B OUT data that is being broadcast openly by properly equipped aircraft. They also have access to the radar data directly from the FAA. The third way is MLAT where multiple receivers note the time that each receives the signal and it is roughly triangulated from that. Mode-S and ADS-B signals of course include the identifier of and aircraft, but Mode-C will not appear on Flightaware unless you somehow speak to the right people (ATC) and your call sign is noted on your radar target.

John.

Your comment about missing targets when radar sites start disappearing is a real concern. In my opinion ADS-B IN/OUT has far more value in the uncontrolled areas with no radar coverage. Ironically these are the places were ADS-B OUT is not required.

It would be really nice if there was a reduced requirement for aircraft flying in those areas to increase adoption. The UK has a program called electronic conspiquity which allows for portable non certified ADS-B OUT units that can be purchased cheaply and are self contained.

Posted by: Ryan Dewsbury | November 6, 2018 2:08 PM    Report this comment

I work for a FAA Repair Station. We are a dealer for most of the brands producing an ADS-B solution.I also give ADS-B presentations to various type clubs and interested aviation groups. I do these presentations to sincerely try to put something back into aviation that will be, hopefully, a benefit to those listening. I am also an owner/pilot with a current A&P ticket. So, while I give the presentations, I am painfully aware of those costs to myself, as well as, others.

Owner/pilots must invest some time and energy in researching their options. Of the 46 or so offering ADS-B options, the vast majority are offering ADS-B IN units. So, for ADS-B compliance, the herd thins out quickly to those offering ADS-B OUT solutions. This means, the field narrows considerably when one is looking for FAA compliance which is having on-board an ADS-B OUT transceiver. In turn, if the aircraft owner concentrates on those solutions, the amount of time and effort needed to get up to an acceptable ADS-B knowledge to make an intelligent decision is considerably less.

If there is anything in aviation that we must NOT rely on our buddies for information is ADS-B compliance and what that requires. The problem is, there is such a wide range of opinions, ranging from security, hacking, personal privacy issues, 978 vs 1090, and Big Brother/1984 scenarios, many are overwhelmed with all this confusion. Therefore, many are not necessarily opting out, but waiting for the dust to settle, to actually see if all this prophetic pontificating will actually come to pass.

Posted by: Jim Holdeman | November 6, 2018 2:59 PM    Report this comment

Owning and flying an airplane in 2018 going forward makes you "visible" to anyone with a computer and can spell FAA.gov whether you are ADS-B compliant or not. For that matter, if you have a computer, smartphone, tablet, and credit cards...and you use them at anytime, you are square in any hacking "bad-guys" sights... if they find you valuable enough. Starting your car with OnStar, turning on your navigation accessories, asking SiRi for directions, and paying online for your Amazon purchase puts you in the same exposure, as if you are being seen on Flightaware when flying one's airplane. This is the hand-wringing that adds so much to the debate clouding the overall picture regarding what a pilot's ADS-B options are. Our government is what it is, it will do what it is going to do, and is being run by folks by and large, clueless to aviation and indifferent to the taxpayers who pay their salaries and expense accounts.

There are a couple ADS-B OUT solutions that most aircraft owners can purchase well under $2,000 installed. With the $500 rebate, one's cost can be $1500 or less. ADS-B IN is available to all flying with a tablet/smartphone and a popular pilot app. That means "zero" additional cost for ADS-B IN and all that it offers. So, today, one can have both ADS-B OUT and IN for less than $1500.

For your acceptance flight simply tell ATC that you are on an ADS-B acceptance flight and they will vector you for ADS-B compliance.

We have already paid for the ADS-B services that ADS-B IN and OUT offers. Now, its simply the decision to partake of those benefits or not. Each individual pilot makes a decision on how much they are willing to participate in US aviation, and all the government influences that are involved whenever they climb into the cockpit. Likewise, the same decisions are made whenever we use a computer, tablet, smartphone, credit card, or simply starting most cars and trucks.

Welcome to the USA in 2018.

Even after January 1, 2020 one can turn the transponder off, fly under Class C and B airspace, pay cash for your fuel at your destination, and ride a bicycle to the local eatery. Yes, one can still fly anonymously, to an amazing amount of crowded, mostly urban, destinations if ADS-B compliance costs you too much time, money, and security. For those compliant with ADS-B IN and OUT, they will be able to "see" you even if you cannot see them. Just make sure your glasses are clean and your head on a swivel.

Posted by: Jim Holdeman | November 6, 2018 3:01 PM    Report this comment

"Even after January 1, 2020 one can turn the transponder off, fly under Class C and B airspace,"

You are forgetting the Mode-C veil requirement. The veil extends 30 miles from the primary airport and outside the Class B shelves.

Posted by: Paul Bertorelli | November 7, 2018 7:10 AM    Report this comment

"On a related note, Paul B.; Any word on whether the FAA's resurrected rebate program is having any effect?"

A little too soon to say, but one shop told me it's helping a little.

Posted by: Paul Bertorelli | November 7, 2018 7:13 AM    Report this comment

Paul,
You are absolutely correct regarding being within the Mode C veil a working transponder is required unless your airplane did not come originally equipped with an electrical system. Any place a transponder IS required, will require ADS-B OUT capability starting January 1, 2020.

However, outside of operating within the Mode C veil, with Class C airspace but not within 30NM of Class B airport, one could still fly under the Class C shelf without a transponder. In reality, this airspace outside the Mode C veil covers the vast majority of airspace GA airplanes fly in.

My frustration with all this is by those who feel threatened about Big Government or terrorists keeping a detailed eye on them via ADS-B. The Mode C veils that cover 37 airports is small in comparison to the rest of the airspace available for flying without a transponder, which would include the area under the Class C shelves. This lack of anonymity argument leading to not equipping with ADS-B OUT makes no practical sense in the age of filing your taxes, GPS, credit cards, smartphones, tablets, pilot apps, or owning an airplane, etc.

ADS-B OUT is now affordable, practical, and adds a huge safety margin. Combined with ADS-B IN capability which most pilots already have and use, we are blessed with the most situational awareness opportunities since Wilbur and Orville.

Once a pilot thoroughly investigates what equipping with ADS-B OUT means for situational awareness, how it actually operates, where it is required vs it's practical flying enhancement in all kinds of airspace, then he or she will be able to realistically evaluate the cost vs benefits of ADS-B compliance.

I am trying to make the case, after all the hyperbole, ADS-B OUT and IN capability will make flying safer with a lot less stress for both pilots and ATC. Regardless who initiated this, what's wrong with enhanced safety through improved situational awareness ?

Posted by: Jim Holdeman | November 7, 2018 9:56 AM    Report this comment

I fly a PA30 Twin Comanche. It's a 3,600 lb gross weight aircraft. My aircraft is denied the FAA ADS-B $500 rebate because it is a twin. Yet I also fly a Piper Saratoga - a 3,600 lb gross weight single. The Saratoga gets the $500 rebate because it is a single. This makes no sense.
I wrote to the FAA (yes, I hear you laughing .......) and was told, in reply, that my comments had been passed on to "The group".
It would be helpful to extend the rebate to light twins as well as light singles - perhaps aircraft under 6,000 lbs? But there needs to be some muscle behind such a recommendation. Would AvWeb like to support a rebate extension?

Posted by: Pat Barry | November 7, 2018 11:00 AM    Report this comment

I agree with Ryan's, "In my opinion ADS-B IN/OUT has far more value in the uncontrolled areas with no radar coverage. Ironically these are the places were ADS-B OUT is not required." This feeds into my previous comment where I said squitting position is like transmitting in the blind at an uncontrolled airport. Without talking to ATC, 'in' equipped airplanes can see you and ADS-R helps YOU to see Mode C airplanes IF you or someone else has activated your hockey puck piece of air.

IF you go back to the very beginning of ADS-B -- then called the Capstone Project in Alaska -- airplane flying AWAY from radar coverage were clunking into each other too often. ADS-B helped. If you move to the busy airspace around Daytona Beach / Orlando, ERAU can keep track of their airplanes using ADS-B, as well. There ARE lots of positives to equipping, as Jim Holderman opines. For many years, I've been saying that squawking Mode C and having a good set of strobes will save your bacon without you ever knowing about it. With ADS-B out, its better yet.

The "electronic conspicuity which allows for portable non certified ADS-B OUT units that can be purchased cheaply and are self contained" mentioned by Ryan is an area that the FAA fell short on. There is no reason why a WAAS enabled and certified GPS position source is required in rural North Dakota, et al. A cheap and portable box could be squitting out your position so that those with "in" can see you. I'm fairly certain that when hoards of drones delivering my Amazon stuff are commonplace, the onboard ADS-B systems won't be certified. In the early days of ADS-B, even totally identical airplanes had to be individually certified by the FSDO's. WHAT? It's no darned wonder that now in the 11th hour +, the FAA is having to lure people to equip with Rebates. They mismanaged the whole process in the beginning.

In the end, however, I see many more positives than negatives to equipping. Just remember my recommendation ... buy a box with a GPS inside of it.

Posted by: Larry Stencel | November 8, 2018 10:26 AM    Report this comment

Not that it's any consolation, but European aircraft owners have just had to shell out for new radios with smaller steps between frequencies (8.33 vs 25kHz) . Why? Because the various countries couldn't agree to share the perfectly adequate number of frequencies without overlapping. So thousands of perfectly good radios are being replaced without any significant safety benefit.

They still haven't agreed on ADSB for general aviation, or any other electronic conspicuity protocol yet.

Posted by: Christopher Roberts | November 12, 2018 11:27 AM    Report this comment

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